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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design, 2014 이기성 교수
관리자  2022-04-11 14:50:21, 조회 : 97, 추천 : 50


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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design, 2014 이기성 교수

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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design, 2014 이기성 교수


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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry


Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design


Abstract

The CAP stands for the act of Computer-Aided Publishing. It is a trend in which the media has changed its form from paper to disk in the 1980s and again from disk to network screen since the 1990s. The Network screen book has also expanded its platform from PC to Post PC, such as PDA. The traditional paper book publishing industry age has been developed from electronic-publishing through mobile-publishing to Ubiquitous-publishing. The way that publishing industry exists and develops comes from the way that it adapts and uses the wave of changes.


Preface

It has been already several years since the emergence of the ubiquitous publishing age. Most traditional publishers may not have had any access to fully comprehend the definition and full implications of ubiquitous publishing.  Since the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, the public perception that paper book was the only publication method has substantially changed from typesetting to prepress field. Non-paper publication using the disk or computerized network instead of paper has appeared as an output media.
  
Ubiquitous publishing, called U-publishing, means publishing in the age of Ubiquitous computing. Ubiquitous includes ‘4 anys’. The ‘4 anys’ stand for Anytime, Anywhere, Any media, and Any device. Any device is accordingly developed to satisfy the needs of the conditions of Any media. Thus, the ‘4 anys’ work and evolve in correlation with each other. Publishers in Any media age who still practice paper media publishing should adapt to the new wave of change, and make a smooth transition to disk or network publishing. U-publishing includes not only ‘4 Anys’ but ‘2 Ds’. The ‘2 Ds’ stand for Digital and Design.

The purpose of this study, the development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, is to look into the past, present and future of the publishing history. Publishers should predict the future, and be aware of the direction of the publishing industry demands. For information society or knowledge based industrial society or even a cultural industrial society, the most recent output of publishing medium is not only paper but also the disk and network screen media of so-called electronic paper. If publication planning or editing technology cannot continually develop to stay within the pace of media expansion, this may cause the publishing industry be defeated in the competition.


Computer aided publishing

For several thousands of years we have had paper books. In the 1980s, the disk book, so called electronic book appeared. And again in the 1990s, the network screen book so called eBook appeared. Both the disk book and the screen book are non-paper. With these new forms of non-paper books, the authors' intention is to visualize the text medium. Non-paper books can use multimedia that can incorporate audio, video, and animation as well as texts at the same time. The new media emerged several decades ago, and books using multimedia arrived only within the last 20 years. Compared with the history of paper-based single medium publication, the history of multimedia as a new media publication method is remarkably short.
        
While paper book publications have been developing for hundreds of years, non-paper book plans emerged only since the invention of computers. One Source Multi Product (OSMP) plan is now used for publications as well, where output is not limited to paper media only. OSMP publishing is making numerous forms of publications from single manuscripts.

According to computer sales, the history of making can be divided into three ages; mainframe age, PC age, and ubiquitous age. The mainframe age is 'one computer, many people', the PC age is 'one computer, one person', and the ubiquitous age is 'many computers, one person'. In 2005, according to the sales forecast, Ubiquitous would occupy the 1st, PC occupies the 2nd, and mainframe ranks the 3rd (Weiser, 1994).

The word which combines computer science and publishing science is CAP. CAP (Computer Aided Publishing) means the act of publishing by using computer. CAP includes electronic book publishing (EP, EBP) and electronic media publishing (Lee, 1988).


FIGURE 1
Computer Aided Publishing (CAP);
Final out media divisions


Screen book publishing is a product of computer aided non-paper book publishing using network either on-line or on-air. When publication uses a terminal linked with cable, it is part of the on-line publication age. But it is called on-air publication age when using a radio system which is linked with mobile terminals. Originally screen book publications begin with on-air concept and do not always rely on cable network.

By looking back at the history of the traditional publishing industry in Korea, the mini computer and microcomputer was developed after the early 1970s. The first 8-bit personal computer was developed and manufactured in the USA in 1976. In Korea, on the other hand, the 8-bit personal computer (Apple II+ PC compatibles) was distributed in 1982 for the first time. It has been only 30 years since the beginning of CTS with mini computers and only 16 years since the beginning of DTP with IBM PC in 1987. Due to the rapid advancement of computer technology, the future of Computer Aided Publishing is not easily predictable. We can only presume that development of CAP will be from CTS to DTPp and from DTP to CTP (Lee, 1997).

Computer Aided Publishing will develop from the 1st step, CTP (Computer To Plate) to the 2nd step, Computer To Press (Digital To Press) and finally to the 3rd step, Computer To Print. In the days of Computer To Print, all the steps from manuscript to printed output will be digitalized and digital print shall finally become realized. When a high-speed digital print is realized, custom-made publications may become possible and that will make Print On Demand (or On-Demand Print) possible. Print On Demand makes POD (Publishing On Demand) possible, sequentially. Both Print On Demand and Publishing On Demand have the same initials of POD.

Computer network and U-publishing

Since the Internet has become not only popular but more or less the norm of the society, the publishing industry has also tapped into Internet communication. Of course, the publishing industry did network screen book publishing using the computer network before Internet communication was generalized. Thus, U-publishing represents the new way of publishing. All the appliances and devices now install the chip-type computers in them and intimately link one another. Why must publishers adapt the One Source One paper Product (OSOP) in the U-publishing age which optimizes environmental concerns in human life? Paper book is a single media book. It mainly uses text with characters and still images. In the mean time, the visual effects of the book which use audios and video images have already been in modern lives for at least 20 years. The books which emphasize on audios and video are multimedia books. It is reasonable that multimedia books will eventually become more popular than single media book for readers.

According to the development of computer communication and Internet, in the publishing industry, the concept also grows and develops from Anytime and Anywhere to Any device. In the present concept of publishing, the final stage is the development of Any media and Any computer. Any media stage means using non-paper media as a final output. The non-paper media has grown and has been developed from the paper media within the publishing industry. The concept of OSMP is publishing using not only paper media but also disk media and network screen media. Disk or network is the representative of non-paper media.

Any computer stage is also explained by the Any device stage. Any device stage is the stage where every device can achieve the role of a computer. Post PCs presently achieve the role of Any device. In the publishing industry, the entry signal of the Any device stage was initiated with the launch of the Rocket eBook terminal in the USA.

Wisebooktopia Co., Barobookdotcom Co., and Dongsamo Co., lead the Korean publication market for eBook (electronic book). Wisebooktopia (represented by HG Kim, JH Oh) marked 4.1 billion won sales in 2002, with the goal reaching total sales of 10 billion won in 2003. Barobookdotcom (represented by SW Lee, SB Sang) is planning on 8 billion won sales in 2003, and Dongsamo (represented by SA Choi) is expecting 4 billion won, twice their 2 billion won sales in 2002 (etnews.co.kr, 2003). The early boom of eBook is measured by how many eBooks purchase take place at the library rather than physical purchases of individual readers at bookstores.

Paper publishing and non-paper publishing

Traditional paper publishing is often called CMYK publishing. This form of publishing results in quality printing on papers with color separation by CMYK which has provided reader satisfaction. Although its 4-color-printing does not represent performance problems, much higher quality printed materials such as maps, which need to use 7 to 8 different colors, could represent a challenge to satisfy the needs and demands from the publishing editors. There used to be a period of time when skill evaluations among print engineers was estimated by how skillfully they could rub 2 small pieces of paper in a manner that the printed color by the offset printer and the color of ink which was rubbed should remain the same. And another trouble for engineers, even though they were able to perform the rubbing technique skillfully, the print time was confined to daytime hours only due to the color differentiation of green and light yellow (the general skin color used to represent of Korean population) on map. The printed colors look different according to lighting exposure; such as under natural daylight, under fluorescent light or even under incandescent bulb light (Lee, 2001).

In the paper book publishing, or traditional publishing, it is common to print color manuscripts with the separation of 4 distinct colors. These colors are black, magenta, cyan and yellow. However, the non-paper book method utilizes monitor screen with 3 colors instead of paper reproduced color manuscripts. The result of the printed color manuscript is composed with M, C, Y and K or R, G, B. The human eye recognizes most colors properly without alternative problems with solar photovoltaic (under the daylight) or artificial illumination state, but the camera’s eye can see the difference in color temperature (color balance) according to light source unlike the human eye. If you understand that the camera’s eye recognizing colors differently either by analog or digital form from the human eyes, then you can recognize the difference between the paper book publishing and the non-paper book publishing. Paper book publishing, which uses paper as the final output media and is composed of the CMYK 4 colors, is sometimes called CMYK publishing. There are mainly two ways of production: CTS or DTP. On the other hand, disk book publishing or screen book publishing is called RGB publishing that use color monitor screen as the final output media.

Final output media of publications is diversified from paper to non-paper. It is a trend prompted by the changing media from paper to disk from the 1980s and the changing media from disk to network screen from the 1990s. Thus, book publishing has also evolved from paper book, to disk book and finally to screen book. Network screen book (screen book) has also expanded its platform from PC to Post PC, such as PDA. This final level of production is represented by the screen book (eBook) terminal used practically since 1998.

Screen book is the general term of books which are read over a computer screen and is linked to the network. This is a representative of RGB publications. Screen book has the same name as Network Screen Book or Network Access Screen Book. You can simply omit the word 'Network' from the 'Network Screen Book'. Computer networks include all PC communication, Internet, private BBS and commercial BBS. There is a magazine that links screen books and communication network, and Web books. It is called Webzine. Whether for PC or for special purpose terminals, eBook is the kind of screen book in demand.

Electronic paper

Society is evolving rapidly. If the 1980s were the information revolution (PC revolution) period, the 2000s can be the ubiquitous epoch of this revolution. In the ubiquitous age, the final output media is the terminal (terminal screen, accurately), which might be called electronic paper and paper being made from pulp.

(1) Intelligence portable terminal and Tablet PC

There are two types of Intelligence portable terminals. One is keypad-based handheld and the other is an electronic pen. The wristwatch can also be used as a screen book terminal. Fossil company's wristwatch may be observed as a kind of personal computer (Post PC); Like a laptop computer or PDA. Because it has electron agenda functions that record schedule and a two-way pager function (Fossil’s Wrist PDA-PC, 2003).

People may use not only a wristwatch but also PDA, a network sewing machine combined with a PC which also has a waterproof web pad for use in the kitchen. If you connect a text book for dressmaking or a 'sheathing and administration' book with the network sewing machine, the sewing machine may independently make a dress utilizing commands through the lines in the book. This waterproof web pad may be further improved to extend its functions in the bathroom as well as in kitchen. Children books, which can be read, in the bathroom have already been published.

It will become screen book if toys are further applied in the post technology phase. For example, a toy named 'Video now' is a palm size toy video which cost $50 US and was exhibited at the New York International Toy Exposition. It can play back instant black and white video film using a special video compact disk (Ibiztoday, 2003). Some people predict that tablet PC will replace the eBook against the intelligent portable terminal. American Bill Gates claims that tablet PC, which is representative runner of next generation PC (post PC), is an eBook terminal (Tablet PC is for computing, communicating, and e-books).  


(2) Mobile book and mobile text book

Other mediums can be used as eBook terminals with mixed-functions such as mobile phones, PDA, image regenerator, and the MP3 player with screen. All these have Internet accessibility that further meets the demand under the Anytime and Anywhere criterion since these mediums are all portable and can be easily transported from places to places.

① Jungjin school (represented by T. W Ha) announced the 'Mobile e-jungjin' eBook, which can offer lectures through portable animation regenerators in January, 2003. Lecture animations can be downloaded by using the 'Motion-eye'. This apparatus is mobile phone shaped and is seen through a 2.5 inch TFT LCD color screen. Thus, this medium too can be used as an eBook, if you download contents of books instead of animation lectures.

② NATE Edu's studying service is available with 'NATE Edu moddi'. This is a mobile text book. 'Edu moddi' is a PDA-phone that possesses the functions of a mobile phone, MP3, animation lecture, English to Korean dictionary and Korean to English dictionary all in one apparatus.

③ The Aonepro's electronic pocket notebook has various functions including Eng-Kor/Kor-Eng/Eng-Eng/Chinese dictionary, original word pronunciation guidance, pen touch and it mounts flash memory expansion slot so readers can store various electronic books in this memory.

④ Yesinternational Co. announced the 'Magic-talkers' which is a digital language learning device. 'Magic-talkers' has a MP3 player function supporting lyrics, a Chinese-Korean/Korean-Chinese dictionary, 2500 phrases of situational conversation in English, among other functions. The important function of this apparatus, which can be further utilized by eBook, is its special voice recognition function.

⑤ On January 23rd, 2003, a mobile animation book with more than 100 copies was upgraded from 4 cut to 8 cut and was serviced through mobile phone, web, PDA, among other mediums.

Conclusion

In this study of the development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, we examined the publishing industry development direction from non-paper book publishing to the present circumstance of the advanced technological information communication revolution (the ubiquitous epoch) developments and adaptation to our everyday modern society. The way the publishing industry further subsists and develops will come from the way that publishers further adapt to and employ the waves of changes.

Accordingly, the publishing industry must maintain a direct link with the computer industry in order to keep up its pace with the changes in the field of informational communications. The publishing industry must understand and foresee the readers’ adaptability and susceptibility to the ever-changing technology that would then welcome the U-publishing age.


U-publishing areas of consideration:

(1) Netizens and Motizens

The method to guide netizens to readers is through screen book publishing. The U-publishing age should include netizens as well as motizens (mobile netizens). The publishing industry must identify the motizens who watch real time TV through cam-corder phones (SPH-V 3000). It is modern kind of mobile phone with direct connection to TV networks. Now, 5-year-old children prefer screen fairy-tale books rather than paper fairy-tale books. Of course, parents turn on computer and interlink the internet to Buki's Fairy-tale site (www.donghwanara.com) or Jaeminara site (www.jaeminara.co.kr) sitting beside their children. Taking these new trends into consideration, for the next generation, these children will be the main readers and they will be accustomed to screen books further revolutionizing the Ubiquitous Epoch.  

(2) OSMP publishing

It is no longer proper to insist on that the disk book and screen book business belong not to the publishing industry but to the computer industry just because disk making and communication network administration business belong to the computer industry. The resulting publications, using disk medium or communication network medium, are the disk book and screen book. The OSMP publishing, thus, intends publications to put together not only paper media but also non-paper media.

If publishers hope to adapt and subsist in the U-publishing age, then they must forgo the traditional publishing concept that paper book is only the proper book. The publishing business can in fact subsist and further develop in the present technological circumstances by joining the waves of changes now pointing towards OSMP publishing ability. Thus, paper book products can evolve onto disk book products, screen book products directly from a single manuscript source.

(3) Training technical experts  

The solution plan should include all facets of book making, i.e. editing, disk books and screen books production, and marketing. However who will take charge of these various departments? Will you employ an engineer whose major is in computer or multimedia to be the editor in your publishing company? Manpower can be utilized to work directly with web design and graphic design. Such employees would be educated in the multimedia or information communication fields. But only the publisher that has experiences in traditional paper book production can plan and edit high quality publications. Such employees would continue to be educated in the arts and language traditional fields. To manufacture high quality publications, publishers must understand the whole publishing process in advance. Without knowledge of traditional publishing methods and merely focusing on new and advanced technological skills, it is not possible to make high quality publications. Thus, the traditional publishing industry age, originating with paper books, continues to serve as a backbone for the further developments in e-publishing via m-publishing to the ultimate U-publishing Epoch.

References

Lee, Ki-sung, (1988) Computer Aided Publishing, Korea: Yong-jin Publishing
Lee, Ki-sung, (2000) eBook and Korean Font, Korea: Dong-il Publishing  
Lee, Ki-sung, (2001) Introduction of Publishing, Korea: Jang-wang-sa Publishing
Lee, Ki-sung, (2002) Revised version of Computer Aided Publishing Vol.4, Korea: Seoul Publishing Media
Lee, Ki-sung, (1998) eBook Computer Aided Publishing 1,2,3,4,5, Korea: Jang-wang-sa Publishing
Lee, Ki-sung, (2002) “The future of eBook and Korean Publishing Business,” Korean Journal of Publishing & Periodical Studies, The Society for Publishing and Cultural Studies
Korean CAPSO, (1995) “Essays of Publishing Vol. 1,” Korean Computer Aided Publishing Society
Korean CAPSO, (2000) “Essays of Publishing Vol. 2”, Korean Computer Aided Publishing Society
KPSS, (2002) “Studies of Korean Publishing Science Vol. 44”, Korean Publishing Science Society    
Jang-wang-sa Publishing Co., Ltd., http://my.dreamwiz.com/jangwang, 2003.8.15.
Korean CAPSO, www.dtp.or.kr, 2003.8.15.
Lee, Ki-sung, http://my.dreamwiz.com/yikisung, 2003.8.15.
Print Porter Site, www.prart.com, 2003.8.15.
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이기성교수의  ‘출판 산업에서 신기술의 보급과 발전’이란 제하의 논문이 2003년 12월
2003년 12월 11일자  전자신문  한세희기자

http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=105&oid=030&aid=0000053470  
[뉴스피플]이기성 계원조형예술대 교수
기사입력 2003-12-11 === 

이기성 계원조형예술대 교수(출판디자인과)의 ‘출판 산업에서 신기술의 보급과 발전’이란 제하의 논문이 국제경영학회(IBEC)의 우수 학술논문에 선정돼 학술지에 게재됐다.
국내 출판관련 학술 논문이 국제 경영학 학술지에 게재되기는 이번이 처음이다.

이 논문은 전통적인 종이 출판 산업이 전자출판 산업 시대와 ’모바일’ 출판 산업시대를거쳐
‘유비쿼터스’ 출판 산업으로 발전하고 있다는 것을 주된 내용으로 하고 있다.

이 교수는 내년 1월 7부터 11일까지 미국 샌프란시스코에서 개최되는 ‘IBEC 2004 콘퍼런스’에서 자신의 논문을 발표한다.
 <한세희기자 hahn@etnews.co.kr>
http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=105&oid=030&aid=0000053470

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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design, 2014 이기성 교수

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The development and diffusion of technology in the publishing industry, Ki-sung Lee, Kaywon College of Arts and Design, 2014 이기성 교수

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